wanted to begin this work of underground documentation of the Casarano
for a series of reasons. The first to document, at least that one,
before it is too much late the real consistency of everything how much
there is in the subsoil than the ancient part than the country he that
The according to to show to young people of today how the
work of our ancestors and the tools used by them in the accomplishment
of the squeezing
of the olives was.
time good he leaves of subsoil of the ancient Casarano was dug and this
for the friability of the rock, and for the necessity to recreate a dry
and hot environment to make the detachment of the oil easier from the
ground pasta of the olives.
these caverns, created in the subsoil, had place of business the olive
oil pressed ipogee, called in the local terms "TRAPPITI".
These ancestors of what with
the time would have been the "industrial revolution" drew what
from these source and materials. This manufacturing of the oil, it was
for many centuries big economy source for all the Salento, towing with
himself not only the system of transformation of the product, but also
the agriculture and the commerce. The oil produced in the Salento was
required and exported in all Europe.
But we go for order. For what who were the working in the
Trappito and before how many they were?
Trappitari were usually four more their head called "NACHIRO"
and seasonal workers who while in the summer period they were developing
the job of sailors, in the cold season, when the sea was impracticable,
were closing themselves in these caverns up to the end of the season of
the squeezing were usually.
here the justification of many seafaring terms which we find in this
context. Their relationships with the outside one were quite limited in
how much, already accustommed on the ships to live without to socialize
and very high rates of work had. He can well tell yourself that theirs I
work he came I turn 24 hours on 24 with rest turns in the inside of the
same Frantoio so as to be awoke in case of need.
same farmers which had to confer the olives for the squeezing the entry
was forbidden in the inside of the Trappito to avoid happening of thefts
sia of olives than of oil.
conferment of the olives to the Trappito, for theirs squeezing was
happening from the road, where I cross the "SCIAVE", (risen of
fire-places dug in the stone which were connecting the road to the olive
oil pressed) the olives were become in the inside of the olive oil
pressed itself waiting for their manufacturing.
his turn the conferred amount was put in in the squeezing basin and
remember that every basin was grinding about six Tomoli of corresponding
olives to about 200 kilogrammes of olives, it measures derivative not
from the capacity of the basin, drink it to the capacity of a little
Ground in fact after the squeezing to crushing, the paste it was
deposited on the Fisculi that drawn up were put on the little press
called "MAMMAREDDHRA" (the Little mother) to undergo a first
squeezing. Thrown up after what in the grinding basin for to re-paste
and always with the same draft proceeding on the Fisculi, pass to the
big press called by the labourers "LU CONZU".
We now pass to see the terms used by our ancestors to name the various
parts of these tools.
I dictate before, we have the basin of shattering of the olives. In his
center he was turning the " PETRA TE TRAPPITU " that was an
only stone block to form cylindrical, used vertically on the circular
track obtained in the shattering basin. He was serving to the crushing
of the olives.
we have "LU CONZU" which is the big press. It was composed by
the mother screw who was on running the "SANTU TUNATU" which
was usually an only wood block. Representing the "head" of the
pressure he had had this name in honour of the protective saint of this
part of the human body. However the saying name I equip, one says have
also another meaning. In fact (on the game of the double meanings of the
term) he seems this name had in as in the act of the pressure and to the
contact of the nut screw, the piece he was creaking as if he thundered
(in vernacular the term is "it was springing" used) and from
here the second meaning of the name.
of him the "CHIANCULA" which was a wood little bench placed
above the FISCULI and used to their crushing under the pressure of the
screw of the press.
At times he was happening that the Fisculi, under the pressure, they
broke the column.The "BARDASCIOLA" which was a lever made of
wood the NACHIRU was trying with to straighten the column of the FISCULI,
using it to which of lever was used so.
dolphin), instead it was to heavy hard stone block,
basic placed to the of the press and sunk in the ground, which, in the
part, was furrowed by superior to circular canal interrupted by to
little passage in the front part, the that was serving to make run as
much as squeezed crosses in the "ANCILU" (the angel).
Ancilu" was a kind of
basin in stone, innerly cylindrical, which the squeezing of the presses
was into directing, and with a communication hole with a cistern
dictates NFIERNU (the hell) to the fund.
will be wondering the because of all these communications among
containers. It is said soon: our ancestors playing on the different
weight specific of the oil and the husk had noticed what being the
lightest oil of this last it was in surface leaving the fund the husk.
So to free hes easily, after picking up the oil they had the husk run be
because I deposit discarded in other cistern called "hell", it
be because producing the husk heat, said cistern was seeming to appear
at the hell.
the said time system was improved. In fact (as then you will be able to
see in other environment) together with the oil a little was very often
picked up of olive oil dregs. Then they decided to have a separator
among the two substances, separator which found which in water
interposing between the oil and the olive oil dregs was separating them
definitely without possibility of mistake.
was like that that the Ancilu water was applied a side hole where was
put in that getting down to the bottom of the battery, gone up again in
his he was acting as separator among the two substances.
what the oil was picked up with from the basins?
tools were two first was used the "CRISCULA" and then "LU
NAPPU" which was a convex container of tin to pick up the floating
oil residual on the bilge inside the ANCILU.
this essential beginning of Frantoiana life we spend to see a few
measure units used at the time.
Saying that said measure units were various for the olives and the oil is
necessary for first thing. For the olives we have what principal measure
unity "LU STUPPEDDHRU", you seem to about 10 kgs. of olives
and "LU TUMULU" you seem to about 33 kgs. of olives. Every
sqeezing basin (as I dictate before) was corresponding to six Tumuli,
that is about 200 kgs. of olives.
To The Oil We Have:
the "SCIUANNA". Container of tin (containing twenty kilos
of oil) to two bends, which had toward the high one and from a side
only a raised bib. This, in the use, was preventing the outside part
of the container to the long oil to drip.
"LU STARU" (the bushel): container of the 16 kg capacity
Your Sottomisura was "LA MINA" (from the greek “hmina”).
Container of the eight kilo of oil capacity (half of a bushel).
"the OTTU PIGNATEDDHRE", container of the equal capacity
to four kilos of oil (half of the mine).
"LU PIGNATEDDHRU" container of the capacity of half kilo of
that these were the principal measures because then we have their
submultiples is useless.
For the moment the version
in English finishes here. You can continue the consultation in Italian,
waiting for the translation.