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Notizie dai conflitti nel mondo

 

 INTRODUCTION TO THE PAPER PULP

The secularization of the consciences of these last decades and the laicism practiced, even if not admitted, have removed the Italians, physically and culturally, from the places and the traditional testimonies of cult.

This is a phenomenon that occupies and takes care the ecclesiastic hierarchies in order to the coherence between faith and experience of life of the Christians. Between the declarations of true religious confessional belongings and practical and the own one, often, there is a incongruousness that does not seem to provoke particular traumas spiritual to the greater part of our conational and comes lived with a nature, disarming, to the eyes of which place the problem in terms of responsibility of the single conscience.

From some time, but, it has gone growing the attention in the comparisons of the cultural assets understandings like discovery of the roots of cultural belongings and - in it ambles to you for elites - like pure taste and intellectual curiosity if not true investment and just.

On the push of this innovation the interest - undifferentiated for hour - for many of those testimonies of the past thought of insufficient cultural value is growing (and economic) like, in the Salento as an example, the paper pulp.

It knows to you under glass bells, residual toys of far infancy, bass-relief of the Protecting ones that dominated the heads of the beds of the grandfathers, several junk. Incomes all a series of objects abandons you to the powder of placed to you domestic and, sometimes, it cancels to you from the memory, it recovers and exposed to you in the rooms like sign of an intellectual tendency that oscillates between the taste and the fashion and, above all, of a found again equilibrium with the memory.

The big wave of this tendency has been manifested also in the churches where to the ancient popular religiosity, made of practical devout people, unchanged from centuries and sandier, second an articulate, but always identical liturgic calendar, has been replaced, at least in the small centers, one new shape of set up approach to the sacred one on the interest for the recovery of the objects of cult of artistic value like propaedeutics phase to a renewed religious engagement.  

But the positive valence of this new tendency even comes diminish from the lack of culture of many commitments - laics and ecclesiastical - and from the insufficient sensibility of some operating fast of the most elementary technical slight knowledge of the restoration. It turns out to you, then, instead representing new possibility of acquaintances on the art works, end in order to become lost occasions and, sometimes, they compromise same integrity of the manufactureds subordinates to participation of recovery.

After all the restoration operation , instead more helping l ' work to living to along and transmitting the cultural and religious values of which is carrier, it ends in order to damage it and the patrimony of cult and art for puts into effect it them and the future generations turn out some impoverish. In order to modify this state of things in its more injurious consequences deepened acquaintance of the phenomenon of the paper pulp is necessary to have one, of its artists, its vicissitudes, the problems legacies to its conservation. And in order to obtain that we would have to decide of a finalized center of documentation to such destination.

But it continues to lack a museum the paper pulp to Lecce.

In the Salento the studies on this artistic production, for how much numerous, deal alone particular aspects (but rarest exceptions) and are devoid of documentary searches that allow to decide of sure elements on which to warp one weft of scientific acquaintances.

If we only had the possibility to know the map of the spread of the works exited from the leccesi laboratories outside from the Salento and outside of Italy in the period comprised between the end dell ' ott or the one hundred and first halves of the nine hundred (admitted that it will be never possible to write up one), perhaps could have l ' exact perception of that it has represented this shape of art for Lecce and the Earth of Otranto, it is on the cultural plan that on that economic.

To slide the directory of honors and prizes, assign to you to main paper pulp salentini present in all the exposures national and intemationals, the feeling is had clean that in that period had renewed the same conditions that two centuries before had constituted the bench marks of the baroque production: availability of specialistic labor and highest quality of the manufactureds ones with added of one the greater facility of transport and costs infinitely more material bottoms regarding more diffuse like wood, marble or chalk.

It is necessary, then, to have an exact perception of the value of the paper pulp in the within of the culture salentina.

Draft, first of all, discovery the existing nexuses between this shape of art and the character of the Salentini; not only for the innate tendecy for the ephemeral one that, for many backs still characterizes them although the changed historic-cultural conditions, but also for those features of fantasy, irony, theatricality, sense of the equilibrium, cordiality, attachment to the authentic values and, also, it appeal to of the transgression, of the grimace, nonconformism. To comprise, in bottom, than the peculiar elements of the paper pulp they are similar to those anthropological ones of the most important Salentini of which also remains always that one to know itself to adapt, to fold, like the material, to any transformation and change.

To clear this will have to be task of the institutions to promote the acquaintance, the conservation and protection of the works of art in paper pulp avoiding the error to neglect of the developments, also of market, for the future.

And this objective could be caught up exclusively with one solid formation for new the operating ones. Too many improvisators to decore of the name of main paper pulp! The masters are little, today like in the past; the only difference is that a time many collaborating found job in the large ones shops (botteghe) or in the plants since fort was one asks characterized; today, that the culture of the souvenir exists nearly exclusively , it is stretched to supply storees and supermarkets without to cure more than a lot the quality of the products, but rarest exceptions.

In the within of the discover one of the paper pulp is necessary to plan of the river l planning the enthusiasm of the initiatives of single with the requirements of the market the waves to avoid separation between qualified acquaintance and production; to the inside of this unavoidable nexus the public institutions will have to carry out their role (University, Superintendence, Province) like guarantors of a process that is at the same time cultural and economic. And if the planning will be very aimed, new operating possibilities for the field with the contribution of other disciplines will be able to be opened also like, as an example, the design.

To difference of the leccese stone, that it is material native, the paper pulp has arrived to Lecce, not is been born.

When , like and in that measure has deeply rooted in the culture salentina - as well as to be defined leccese, like the stone and the times - it can be debate object.  

That the main artifice of its affirmation goes recognized in Mauro Manieri - which it would represent the baroque artist in the complete sense of the term - or that the spread is wanted to be anticipated some nell ' within of the ephemeral apparatuses of the festivity and that, through the baroque yard, it is landed to the true statuaria and own, they will be the studies and the documents to confirm it in future.

The 1730 and discovery Immaculate of the matrix of Casarano, executed between 1720, placed to the internal of a machine of altar in leccese stone, for the quality of the modeled one, the nature of the insertion in a “lapideo” context and the style very various paternity from that one of the Ways, push to us to assume that in Earth of Otranto I use of such made could not little be moment. The set mounting of the work would make to think to a habit consolidated in the assemblage of two various materials like stone and paper pulp us.

The use to place to head-altars the two torch-beares, to maintain angels end nearly to our days, cannot be only seen like the attempt to realize, cheaply, two complementary figures of the altar that, if carved in different materials from the paper pulp, would have had costs more elevates to you; but like a custom, typical of the traditional yard, of I use contemporary, of various materials like stucco, paper pulp, wood beyond to the stone. And this is made notorius, at least between the attache's to the jobs.

Of the rest thick the presence of qualified mains represents only an aspect of the dominated yard salentino, often, from the personality of numerous foremans-entrepreneurs which sometimes were also sculptors; but, to the occurrence, if the plan demanded it, they used of the work of other artists which collaborated nearly in fixed way with the companies. For all, it is worth the society between Of Bordering and the Tarantino or between the Pen and the Zimbalo.

 

The presence of entire statues in paper pulp or parts modeled to relief to the inside of blots some of altar or, however, of “lapidei” contexts, it is  found hour in very many edifices. For all they are worth little citations of easy reply like, to Lecce, in the former-church of S.Francesco d' Assisi, the altars of S.Luigi (sculptures of Made happy Michelina, S.Ludovico, S.Elisabetta), of Announced ( a cherub on the time to stucco), of the Immaculate one (perizoma of the two angels on the cimasa); to Galatina, in the church of the Spirits, the six sculptures placed on consoles in the walls of within (S. Gregorio, S.Nicola from Tolentino, S. Domenico di Guzman, S. Caterina from Siena, S. Cristina, S.Domenica); to Meshes, in the church of S. Nicholas, the sculptures placed to the capialtari nearly all the altars of the lateral navate ones; to Tuglie, in the church matrix, decorations to rosettes and angels long all the “specchiature” of the walls removed in the post-war period. Without to count, outside from the Salento, the participations decorated you of leccesi artists in the cathedral of reconstructed Nola after the fire of 1861. And the directory could still continue with other known already famous examples or less.

Quanto allo sviluppo tecnico di questa forma d'arte non va sottaciuto che le nostre conoscenze, anche a livello nazionale, non sono paragonabili a quelle di altre espressioni artistiche come la pittura o la scultura. Soprattutto non sono ancora del tutto chiare le sequenze evolutive, sul piano strettamente tecnico, tra le diverse aree culturali e le loro reciproche, eventuali influenze.

In fondo la stessa povertà del materiale ha impedito, in passato, una sua valorizzazione sul piano critico in quanto arte minore.

Per favorire un'inversione di tendenza in futuro occorrerà che le istituzioni innanzitutto mutino atteggiamento culturale nei confronti della paper pulp e la considerino espressione peculiare (non più popolare) e fondamentale per la comprensione della civiltà salentina, riconoscendole la stessa dignità con la quale hanno sempre guardato all'architettura , alla pittura ed alla scultura. Insomma che alla paper pulp leccese venga riconosciuto quel ruolo di arte guida che per oltre un secolo - e ancora oggi- individua culturalmente nel mondo, accanto al barocco, il capoluogo ed il territorio del Salento.

 Professor Giovanni Giangreco

(Official Superintendence of Cultural Heritage Artistic and Architecturals of Puglia, department of Lecce)

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Ultimo aggiornamento:

 24 novembre 2006